ELSEVIER Volumes 290-291

15 December 1996

Contents

Preface Publication Schedule Committees

Exhibitors

Recent advances in optical coating materials

Highly transparent and conductive ZnO-In,O, thin films prepared by d.c. magnetron sputtering T. Minami, T. Kakumu, Y. Takeda, S. Takata (Ishikawa, Japan)

Transparent-conductive indium tin oxide films fabricated by atmospheric r.f. plasma deposition technique D.H. Lee, R.W. Moss, K.D. Vuong, M. Dietrich, R.A. Condrate Sr., X.W. Wang (Alfred, NY, USA) Influence of a parallel electric field on the conductivity of a growing indium oxide film B. Alterkop, N. Parkansky, R.L. Boxman, S. Goldsmith (Ramat Aviv, Israel) CdS thin film deposition by CW Nd:YAG laser } O. Trujillo, R. Moss, K.D. Vuong, D.H. Lee, R. Noble, D. Finnigan, S. Orloff, E. Tenpas,C. Park, J. Fagan, X w Wang ( Alfred, NY, USA) A study on the double insulating layer for HgCdTe MIS structure J.W. Jung, H.C. Lee, J.S. Wang (Taejon, South Korea) Optical reflectance reduction of textured silicon surfaces coated with an antireflective thin film. E.S. Kolesar, Jr. (Fort Worth, TX, USA), V.M. Bright, D.M. Sowders (Dayton, OH, USA) Thermochromism of rapid thermal annealed VO, and Sn-doped VO, thin films M.-H. Lee, M.-G. Kim (Suwon, South Korea), H.-K. Song ( Seoul, South Korea) Residual stress in silicon dioxide thin films produced by ion-assisted deposition J.Y. Robic (Grenoble, France), H. Leplan ( Velizy-Villacoublay, France), Y. Pauleau (Saint Martin d’ Héres, France), B. Rafin

(Grenoble, France) Ellipsometry: measurement process control and data interpretation

The calculation of thin film parameters from spectroscopic ellipsometry data . G.E. Jellison, Jr. (Oak Ridge, TN, USA)

Real time control of the growth of silicon alloy multilayers by multiwavelength ellipsometry .... M. Kildemo, S. Deniau, P. Bulkin, B. Drévillon ( Palaiseau, France)

An algorithm for analyzing ellipsometric data taken with multiple angles of incidence J.C. Comfort, F.K. Urban Ill , D. Barton (Miami, FL, USA)

Multilayer reference coatings for depth profile standards sapiens U. Beck, G. Reiners, Th. Wirth (Berlin, Germany), V. Hoffmann, F. PraBler (Dresden, Germany )

Polymer films and protective coatings

A new method for fabricating transparent barrier layers J.D. Affinito, M.E. Gross, C.A. Coronado, G.L. Graff, E.N Greenwell, PM. Martin (Richland, WA, USA)

Improvement of the adhesion of silica layers to polypropylene eg my nitrogen plasma treatment

S. Vallon, A. Hofrichter, B. Drévillon (Palaiseau, France), J.E. Kiemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu (Montreal, Que., Canada), F. Poncin-Epaillard (Le Mans, France)

Elsevier Science S.A

Contents

Relaxation of mechanical stress in polyimide films by softbaking . P.K. Bhattacharya, K.S. Bhosale (Baton Rouge, LA, USA)

Symposium C poster session Electron beam deposition of ZrO,—ZnO films.........

S.B. Qadri, E.F. Skelton, P. Lubitz (Washington, DC, USA), N.V Nguyen (Gaithersburg, MD, USA),H.R Khan (Schwabisch Gmiind, Germany )

Transparent ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering of ZnO:Al with either a Zn or an Al target . K. Tominaga, M. Kataoka, H. Manabe, T. Ueda, I. Mori (Tokushima, Japan)

Influence of oxygen on some oxide films prepared by ion beam sputter deposition .. C.-C. Lee, D.T. Wei, J.-C. Hsu, C.-H. Shen (Chung-Li, Taiwan)

Synthesis, characterization and applications of cubic boron nitride and CN materials

Synthesis and characterization of amorphous carbon nitride films B.C. Holloway (Stanford,CA, USA), D.K. Shuh (Berkeley, CA, USA), M.A. Kelly (Stanford, CA, USA). W. Tong (Berkeley, CA, USA), J.A. Carlisle, I. Jimenez, D.G.J. Sutherland, L.J. Terminello (Livermore, CA, USA), P. Pianetta, S. Hagstrom (Stanford, CA, USA)

The effect of annealing on the structure of cathodic arc deposited amorphous carbon nitride films D.G. McCulloch, A.R. Merchant (Sydney, NSW, Australia)

Investigation of carbon nitride films by cathodic arc evaporation M. Chhowalla, I. Alexandrou, C. Kiely, G.A.J. Amaratunga (Liverpool, UK), R. ‘Aheronov, R.F. Fontana (Rockaway, NJ, USA)

lon beam deposited carbon nitride films: characterization and identification of chemical sputtering P. Hammer, M.A. Baker, C. Lenardi, W. Gissler (Ispra Va, Italy)

Plasma diagnostic studies to the carbon nitride film deposition by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering ......... R. Kaltofen, T. Sebald, G. Weise (Dresden, Germany )

Synthesis of cubic boron nitride films using a helicon wave plasma and reduction of compressive stress ..... 1.-H. Kim, K.-S. Kim, S.-H. Kim (Pohang, South Korea), S.-R. Lee (Changwon, South Korea)

Synthesis and characterization of diamond and related materials

Transformation of sp* to sp’ sites of diamond like carbon coatings during friction in vacuum and under water vapour environment . T. Le Huu (Doi Can Hanoi, Viet Nam), H. Zaidi, D. Paulmier ( Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy, France), P. Voumard ( Neuchatel, Switzerland)

Heteroepitaxial nucleation of diamond by bias pretreatment in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave chemical vapor deposition system N. Maréchal, S. Yamashita ( Yokohama, Japan)

Lattice disorder and texture in diamond coatings deposited by HFCVD on Co-cemented tungsten carbide ... P. Scardi, S. Veneri, M. Leoni ( Mesiano TN, Italy), R. Polini, E. Traversa (Roma, Italy)

Optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma during CVD diamond growth with nitrogen addition T. Vandevelde, M. Nesladek, C. Quaeyhaegens, L. Stals (Diepenbeek, Belgium)

Structural phase transitions of carbon observed with photoelectron spectroscopy .... P. Reinke, G. Francz, P. Oelhafen ( Basel, Switzerland)

Electronic and optical applications of diamond and related materials

Investigation of the field emission current from polycrystalline diamond films.......... J.W. Glesener, A.A. Morrish (Washington, DC, USA)

Fabrication of free-standing diamond membranes. . M.C. Salvadori, M. Cattani, V. Mammana (Séo Paulo, SP, CEP, Brazil), O.R. Monteiro, J.W. Ager III , LG. Brown (Berkeley, CA, USA)

Effect of the cyclic growth/etching time ratio on the { 100}-oriented texture growth of a diamond film te S.H. Kim, Y.S. Park, LT. Han (Suwon, South Korea), W.S. Yun (Seoul, South Korea), J.-W. Lee (Suwon, South Korea)

High sensitivity thermal sensors on insulating diamond

R. Job, A. V Denisenko, A. M Zaitsev (Hagen, Germany), A. A Melnikov (Minsk, Belarus), M. Wemer (Teltow, Germany), W. R Fahrner (Hagen, Germany )

Contents

Symposium D poster session

Field emission behavior of (nitrogen incorporated) diamond-like carbon films K.-R. Lee, K.Y. Eun (Seoul, South Korea), S. Lee, D.-R. Jeon (Kyunggi-Do, South Korea)

Enhanced electron emission from phosphorus- and boron-doped diamond-clad Si field emitter arrays . T.K. Ku, S.H. Chen, C.D. Yang, N.J. She, F.G. Tarntair, C.C. Wang, C.F. Chen, LJ. Hsieh, H.C. Cheng (Hsinchu, Taiwan)

Epitaxial growth of B-SiC thin films using bis-trimethylsilylmethane on Si( 100) with a polycrystalline buffer layer. W. Bahng, H.J. Kim (Seoul, South Korea)

Enhanced diffusion of C in Fe under CVD diamond deposition conditions P.S. Weiser, S. Prawer, D.N. Jamieson (Parkville, Vic., Australia), R.R. Manory ( Melbourne, Australia)

Field emission observations from CVD diamond-coated silicon emitters V. Raiko, R. Spitzl, B. Aschermann, D. Theirich, J. Engemann, N. Pupeter, T Habermann, G Miller (Wuppertal, Germany )

Chemical vapour deposition of diamond at low substrate temperatures using fluorinated precursors. F. Hentschel, 1. Schmidt, C. Benndorf (Hamburg, Germany )

Fe-C:H-film growth by plasma-assisted CVD from organometallic precursors W. Luithardt, C. Benndorf (Hamburg, Germany )

Mechanical processes on the atomic scale

Nanoscale mechanical property measurements using modified atomic force microscopy A.V. Kulkarni, B. Bhushan (Columbus, OH, USA)

Molecular dynamics investigations of the effects of debris molecules on the friction and wear of diamond M.D. Perry, J.A. Harrison ( Annapolis, MD, USA)

Mechanical properties and film adhesion

Measurement of the hardness of hard coatings using a force indentation function C. Friedrich, G. Berg, E. Broszeit, C. Berger (Darmstadt, Germany ) Local yield map of hard coating with an interlayer under sliding contact D. Diao (Hamamatsu, Japan) Characterization of TiN films deposited onto stainless steel strips by continuous dry-coating process

F. Arezzo, P. Gimondo (Roma, Italy), M. Hashimoto ( Kawasaki, Japan), N. Ono, T. Takahashi ( Yamaguchi- Pre., Japan)

Mechanical properties of hard W-C physically vapor deposited coatings in monolayer and multilayer configuration ..

P. Juliet, A. Rouzaud, K. Aabadi (Grenoble, France), P. Monge-Cadet ( Bordes, France), Y. Pauleau (Grenoble, France ) The ultimate vacuum pressure and the characteristics of sputtered coatings

A. Cavaleiro, M.T. Vieira, F. Ramos, J.P. Dias (Coimbra, Portugal) Effects of deflection on bulge test measurements of enhanced modulus in multilayered films.....

A.F. Jankowski (Livermore, CA, USA), T. Tsakalakos (Piscataway, NJ, USA)

Residual stress and in-situ thermal stress measurement of aluminum film deposited on silicon wafer.. , K. Kusaka, T. Hanabusa (Tokushima, Japan), M. Nishida (Marugame, Japan), F. Inoko (Tokushima, Japan) Origins of the residual stress in CVD diamond films C.T. Kuo, C.R. Lin, H.M. Lien (Hsinchu, Taiwan)

Effect of a plasma protection net on residual stress in AIN films deposited by a magnetron sputtering system K. Kusaka, T. Hanabusa, K. Tominaga (Tokushima, Japan)

Nondestructive and in situ characterization

In situ IR ellipsometry study of the adhesion and growth of plasma deposited silica thin films on stainless steel substrates

N. Bertrand, B. Drévillon (Palaiseau, France), J.E. Kiemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu ( Montreal, Que., Canada) Non-destructive evaluation of thin film coatings using a laser-induced surface thermal lensing effect

Z.L. Wu (Ypsilanti, MI, USA), P.K. Kuo, Y.S. Lu (Detroit, MI, USA), S.T. Gu, R. Krupka ( Ypsilanti, MI, USA) Optical and calorimetric evaluation of Z-93-P and other thermal control coatings ..

D.A. Jaworske (Cleveland, OH, USA)

The in situ characterization of metal film resistance during deposition I.M. Rycroft, B.L. Evans (Reading, UK)

Spectrophotometric study of oxide growth on arc evaporated TiN and ZrN coatings during hot air oxidation tests . S. Luridiana ( Milano, Italy), A. Miotello (Povo, TN, Italy)

Contents

Impulsive stimulated thermal scattering for sub-micron-thickness film characterization A.A. Maznev, K.A. Nelson (Cambridge, MA, USA), T. Yagi (Sapporo, Japan)

Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition of thin film silicon M.M.M. Bilek, W.1. Milne (Cambridge, UK)

Surface and thin film analysis

Non-destructive characterization and evaluation of thin films by laser-induced ultrasonic surface waves ........ D. Schneider (Dresden, Germany), M.D. Tucker (Santa Clara, CA, USA)

Comparison of atomic force microscope and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry data of nanometre size zinc islands............... M.F. Tabet, F.K. Urban III (Miami, FL, USA)

The structure of tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin films S.R.P. Silva (Guildford, UK), S. Xu, B.K. Tay, H.S. Tan (Singapore, Singapore), H.-J. Scheibe (Dresden, Germany ), M. Chhowalla, W.I. Milne (Cambridge, UK)

XPS investigation of Ti-O containing diamond-like carbon films .................0.ccccccecececeeseceeeeneeeceeeeeees ia U. Miiller, R. Hauert (Diibendorf, Switzerland)

Pretreatment of GaAs (001) for sulfur passivation with (NH,).S, M.-G. Kang, H.-H. Park (Seoul, South Korea), K.-S. Suh (Taejon, South Korea), J.-L. Lee (Pohang, South Kors)

Valence band photoemission study of the Ti-Mo-N system R. Sanjinés, C. Wiemer, J. Almeida, F. Lévy (Lausanne, Switzerland)

Microstructural characterization and imaging techniques

Study on d.c. magnetron sputter deposition of titanium aluminium nitride thin films: effect of aluminium content on coating.... R. Wuhrer, W.Y. Yeung, M.R. Phillips, G. McCredie (Sydney, Australia)

Corrosion behaviour of hybrid coatingS....................0cssceeeees W. Brandl, C. Gendig (Gelsenkirchen, Germany )

Localised micro-hardness measurements with a combined scanning force microscope/nanoindentation system N.X. Randall, R. Christoph, S. Droz, C. Julia-Schmutz ( Neuchatel, Switzerland)

STM and XPS study of filtered vacuum arc deposited Sn—O films................... L. Kaplan, I. Rusman, R.L. Boxman, S. Goldsmith, M. Nathan, E. Ben-Jacob (Tel-Aviv, Israel )

Symposium F poster session

Modelling and finite element analysis of ultra~-microhardness indentation of thin films .....................c00000 L. Gan, B. Ben-Nissan (Broadway, NSW, Australia), A. Ben-David (Lindfield, NSW, Australia)

Effect of oxygen plasma etching on adhesion between polyimide films and metal Y. Nakamura, Y. Suzuki, Y. Watanabe ( Kanagawa, Japan)

Influence of Ni-P electroless coating on the fatigue behavior of plain carbon steels

E.S. Puchi, M.H. Staia (Caracas, Venezuela), H. Hintermann (Neuchatel, Switzerland), A. Pertuz, J. Chitty (Caracas, Venezuela)

Study by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction of the growth of TiN thin films obtained by nitridation of Ti EE Te ee ey ee a ea ER

S. Santucci, L. Lozzi, M. Passacantando, P. Picozzi, R. Alfonsetti, R. Diamanti, G. Moccia (L’ Aquila, Italy)

Plasma wall interaction for TiN, film deposition in a hollow cathode arc discharge ................. C. Eggs, H. Kersten, H.-E. Wagner, H. Wulff (Greifswald, Germany)

Deposition of titanium in a hollow cathode arc discharge: correlation between deposition conditions and film properties. H. Steffen, C. Eggs, H. Kersten (Greifswald, Germany ) Studies of phase transformations in some metal phthalocyanine thin films using measurements of current as a function of

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A. Picos-Vega, R. Ramirez-Bon, F.J. Espinoza-Beltran (Hermosillo, Son., Mexico), O. Zelaya-Angel, O. Alvarez-Fregoso, J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez (Mexico, D.F., Mexico)

Ageing effects of thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition: a multi-technique characterization M.G. Beghi, C.E. Bottani ( Milano, Italy), L. Calliari, M. Bonelli, A. Miotello (Povo Trento, Italy), P.M. Ossi (Milano, Italy), J. Kovac, G. Scarel, M. Sancrotti (Trieste, Italy)

Contents

Advanced metalization: materials and processes

Modeling of selective tungsten low-pressure chemical vapor deposition K.J. Kuijlaars, C.R. Kleijn, H.E.A. Van den Akker (Delft, The Netherlands)

Encapsulation of silver by nitridation of Ag—Ti alloy /bilayer structures

T. Laursen, D. Adams, T.L. Alford (Tempe, AZ, USA), K.-N. Tu (Los Angeles, CA, USA), F. Deng, R. Morton, S.S. Lau (San Diego, La Jolla CA, USA)

Effects of Au overlayers on the electrical and morphological characteristics of Pd/Sn ohmic contacts to n-GaAs.............. M.S. Islam, P.J. McNally, D.C. Cameron ( Dublin, Ireland), P.A.F. Herbert (Cork, Ireland)

Advanced dielectrics and planarization: materials and processes

Optimization of SiO, film conformality in TEOS/O, APCVD Z. Yuan, S. Mokhtari, A. Ferdinand, J. Eakin, L. Bartholomew ( Scotts Valley, CA, USA)

Plasma and surface diagnostics during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO, from SiH,/O,/ Ar discharges S.M. Han, E.S. Aydil (Santa Barbara, CA, USA)

Multi-level interconnects for heterojunction bipolar transistor integrated circuit technologies

G.A. Patrizi, M.L. Lovejoy (Albuquerque, NM, USA), P.M. Enquist (Research Triangle Park, NC, USA), R.P. Schneider, Jr. H.Q. Hou ( Albuquerque, NM, USA)

Tantalum pentoxide for advanced DRAM applications K.A. McKinley, N.P. Sandler (Fremont, CA, USA)

Chemical mechanical polishing

The addition of surfactant to slurry for polymer CMP: effects on polymer surface, removal rate and underlying Cu ... J.M. Neirynck, G.-R. Yang, S.P. Murarka, R.J. Gutmann (Troy, NY, USA)

Chemical—mechanical polishing of PECVD silicon nitride Y.Z. Hu, G.-R. Yang, T. Paul Chow, R.J. Gutmann (Troy, NY, USA)

Effects of mechanical characteristics on the chemical—mechanical polishing of dielectric thin films W.-T. Tseng, C.-W. Liu, B.-T. Dai, C.-F. Yeh (Hsinchu, Taiwan)

Silicides

Crystallization of amorphous SiGe thin films .. H.Y. Tong (Irvine, CA, USA), TJ King (Palo Alto, CA, USA), F.G Shi (Irvine, CA, USA)

TiSi, phase transformation characteristics on narrow devices G.L. Miles, R.W. Mann, J.E. Bertsch (Essex Junction, VT, USA) Materials aspects of Ti and Co silicidation of narrow polysilicon lines J.A. Kittl, Q.Z. Hong (Dallas, TX, USA)

Prediction of silicide formation and stability using heats of formation R. Pretorius (Faure, South Africa)

Silicon contact technology

Evaluation of barriers for B and P diffusion into As-doped polysilicon M.D. Naeem, C. Parks, K. Wangemann, H. Glawischnig (Hopewell Junction, NY, USA)

Contacts to nonsilicon substrates

NiGeW ohmic contacts on GaAs heterostructure epitaxial layers .. J.H. Huang, S. Tehrani, M. Durlam, M.J. Martinez, E. Schirmann, N Cody (Tempe, AZ, USA)

A low-resistance Pd/Ge/Ti/ Au ohmic contact to a high-low doped GaAs field-effect transistor

J.S. Kwak, H.K. Baik (Seoul, South Korea), J.-L. Lee, C.G. Park (Pohang, South Korea), H. Kim, K.-S. Suh (Deajon, South Korea)

Adhesion studies of GaAs-based ohmic contact and bond pad metallization P.K. Seigal, R.D. Briggs, DJ. Rieger, A.G. Baca ( Albuquerque, NM, USA), A.J. Howard (Rio Rancho, NM, USA)

A study of P-type ohmic contacts to InAlAs/InGaAs heterostructures R.D. Briggs, A.J. Howard, A.G. Baca, M.J. Hafich, G.A. Vawter ( Albuquerque, NM, USA)

Thin-film tantalum-nitride resistor technology for phosphide-based optoelectronics M.L. Lovejoy, G.A. Patrizi, D.J. Rieger, J.C. Barbour ( Albuquerque, NM, USA)

Contents

Symposium H poster session

Quantitative investigation of copper/indium multilayer thin film reactions .................cccccccccececeeeneeeececeececeececeeececeeseseusees . 518 K.A. Lindahl, J.J. Moore, D.L. Olson, R. Noufi (Golden, CO, USA), B. Lanning (Denver, CO, USA)

Formation of iron silicides on Si( 110) by reactive deposition epitaxy .................cccccceceececeeceeeceeceseeeeeeececcesecereeeceveesensenens J. Wu, S. Shimizu (Kanagawa, Japan)

Author Index of Volumes 290-291

Subject Index of Volumes 290-291

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